Thursday, May 14, 2015

Vitamin K2 for Fertility and Pregnancy


Vitamin K2 for Fertility and Pregnancy
May 14, 2015
Katie Jodscheidt, NASM-FNS, CPT

One of the most significant things you can do when attempting to conceive or while pregnant is to make sure to be fueling yourself, and your unborn child, with a nutritious diet. Pregnancy is taxing on the body and it is often hard or near impossible to obtain all the recommended nutrients without vitamin supplementation. Making smart choices concerning what you eat and the supplements you take will promote healthy development and growth of your baby says Certified Nutrition Specialist and Innerzyme founder, Katie Jodscheidt. One vitamin that is gaining more and more interest is vitamin K2, which is found in fermented foods such as natto and certain cheeses, eggs, meat, butter and other dairy foods1 from grass-fed sources. However, just because a food is fermented does not necessarily mean it is rich in vitamin K2, in fact, many are not.

Many Eastern cultures consume fermented soybeans or natto on a daily basis, however, the slimy and smelly taste and texture of it is often too unpleasant for the Western palate. As far as other foods containing vitamin K2, getting an adequate amount is not as easy as one may think since many foods are lacking this essential nutrient because they are processed, genetically modified and no longer sourced from grass-fed animals. An easier and more convenient way of getting an adequate amount of vitamin K2 is through daily supplementation. However, not all vitamin K2 supplements are created equal. When choosing a vitamin K2 supplement, quality, dosage and type of vitamin K2 is important. The optimal quality of vitamin K2 is in the natural form of MK-7 because it has a longer half-life, meaning it stays in your system longer and the body better absorbs it. In healthy individuals, research has not reported any side effects, adverse reactions or known toxicity as a result of large doses of vitamin K2. In fact, many Eastern cultures consume 300-600mcg of natto daily. Inside the human body vitamin K2 is involved in many processes that are critical for a healthy pregnancy and baby, such as blood coagulation, bone metabolism and other calcium dependent events. 

Research into the health benefits of vitamin K2 is still in its infancy with more and more work being done. Two recent peer reviewed studies provide encouraging results concerning the role of vitamin K2 in embryonic development. In August 2014, a cohort of Japanese researchers discovered that an enzyme called UBIAD1, which is involved in vitamin K2 synthesis, is required for development of mouse embryos2. When the scientists deleted both copies of the gene coding for UBIAD1 mice embryos died in less than 8 days after ceasing to grow, and as expected, produced no vitamin K2. Strikingly, when the mothers of these mutant mice were administered vitamin K2, the embryos lifespan was extended to term. Not long after this report was published, Canadian researchers found that vitamin K2 supplementation significantly improved embryo production in cows3. This finding is most likely due to the role of vitamin K2 in mitochondria function, which converts sugars into energy for the cells to use. Together, these reports add to the increasing knowledge researchers at Innerzyme are gaining concerning the health benefits of vitamin K2 and warrant further research. 

References: 

1.     Elder S. et al. Vitamin K contents of meat, dairy, and fast food in the U.S. diet. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2006, 54(463−467) (source
2.     Nakagawa K. et al. Vitamin K2 biosynthetic enzyme, UBIAD1 is essential for embryonic development of mice. PLoS One 2014, 9(8): e104078 (source
3.     Baldoceda-Baldeon et al. Improvement of bovine in vitro embryo production by vitamin K supplementation. Reproduction 2014, 148(5) 489-97 (source)


For additional research articles on Vitamin K2, visit: www.innerzyme.com.

Recommended dosage of Innerzyme Vitamin K2, MK-7: Take 1 vegetarian capsule (300mcg) per day, or as directed by your healthcare practitioner.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.  This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Friday, May 1, 2015

What You Need to Know About Vitamin K2

Short NEW Video about the Importance of Vitamin K2


As more and more information is coming out about the health benefits of Vitamin K2, it is important to not get confused about the K vitamins. Most people are familiar with Vitamin K1, which is found in leafy greens and helps with blood coagulation support. People taking prescription blood thinners are often told to stay away from diets rich in leafy greens (vitamin k1) and also do not take a vitamin k supplement because it can possibly thin your blood too much.

But what about Vitamin K2? Vitamin K2 is very different from Vitamin K1. Vitamin K2 in an adequate dose is very difficult to get from your diet, however, fermented soybeans or “natto” is one of the richest sources of this vitamin. An easier and more convenient way of getting Vitamin K2 is through supplementation. Much different than the role of Vitamin K1, Vitamin K2 is responsible for channeling calcium into your bones and teeth while keeping it out of the arteries. Think of Vitamin K2 as the traffic cop for calcium.

To clarify one more important fact without complicating things too much is to explain the two different types of Vitamin K2, MK-4 and MK-7. Vitamin K2, MK-4 is the synthetic form of K2, it is often cheaper in price, however, it has a shorter half-life meaning it stays in the system for only a few hours. Usually, someone taking Vitamin K2, MK-4 will have to take one capsule up to three times a day to ensure it stays in the system.

The other form of K2 is MK-7 which is considered the optimal form of Vitamin K2. MK-7 is the natural form of K2, which is going to be a little more expensive since it is naturally sourced from nature (fermented soybeans), however, it has a longer half life meaning it stays in your system for up to 2-3 days and has better absorption. Supplementing with a natural, MK-7 form of Vitamin K2 allows you to get an adequate dose in just one single capsule per day.

So when looking for a Vitamin K2 supplement, do your research and make sure you select a Non-GMO, allergen-free, natural Vitamin K2, MK-7 supplement. Recommended dose is 300mcg (1 capsule) per day, or as directed by your healthcare practitioner. Innerzyme Vitamin K2, MK-7, 300mcg offers the highest potency, natural K2 on the market in a convenient one a day vegetarian capsule. Research shows daily supplementation with Vitamin K2 in the natural form of MK-7 supports cardiovascular, bone and soft tissue health.*

Innerzyme Vitamin K2, MK-7, 300mcg is available in a 30ct and 90ct size from the following online authorized retailers:

www.innerzyme.com
www.iHerb.com
www.VitaminShoppe.com
www.LuckyVitamin.com

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.  This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Sunday, April 5, 2015

Vitamin K1 vs. Vitamin K2 | What is the difference between the K Vitamins?


As more and more information is coming out about the health benefits of Vitamin K2, it is important to not get confused about the K vitamins. Most people are familiar with Vitamin K1, which is found in leafy greens and helps with blood coagulation support. People taking prescription blood thinners are often told to stay away from diets rich in leafy greens (vitamin k1) and also do not take a vitamin k supplement because it can possibly thin your blood too much. 

But what about Vitamin K2? Vitamin K2 is very different from Vitamin K1. Vitamin K2 in an adequate dose is very difficult to get from your diet, however, fermented soybeans or "natto" is one of the richest sources of this vitamin. An easier and more convenient way of getting Vitamin K2 is through supplementation. Much different than the role of Vitamin K1, Vitamin K2 is responsible for channeling calcium into your bones and teeth while keeping it out of the arteries. Think of Vitamin K2 as the traffic cop for calcium. 

To clarify one more important fact without complicating things
too much is to explain the two different types of Vitamin K2, MK-4 and MK-7. Vitamin K2, MK-4 is the synthetic form of K2, it is often cheaper in price, however it has a shorter half life meaning it stays in the system for only a few hours. Usually, someone taking Vitamin K2, MK-4 will have to take one capsule up to three times a day to ensure it stays in the system.

The other form of K2 is MK-7 which is considered the optimal form of Vitamin K2. MK-7 is the natural form of K2, which is going to be a little more expensive since it is naturally sourced from nature (fermented soybeans), however, it has a longer half life meaning it stays in your system for up to 2-3 days and has better absorption. Supplementing with a natural, MK-7 form of Vitamin K2 allows you to get an adequate dose in just one single capsule per day. 

So when looking for a Vitamin K2 supplement, do your research and make sure you select a Non-GMO, allergen-free, natural Vitamin K2, MK-7 supplement. Recommended dose is 300mcg (1 capsule) per day, or as directed by your healthcare practitioner. Innerzyme Vitamin K2, MK-7, 300mcg offers the highest potency, natural K2 on the market in a convenient one a day vegetarian capsule. Research shows daily supplementation with Vitamin K2 in the natural form of MK-7 supports cardiovascular, bone and soft tissue health. 

Order Innerzyme Vitamin K2, MK-7, 300mcg Online:


Wednesday, March 11, 2015

Natural Vitamin K2 and Bone Health | Innerzyme

Double Blind Study Finds That Natural Vitamin K2 Helps Prevent Bone Loss

March 11, 2015 
Katie Jodscheidt, NASM-CPT, FNS | Innerzyme

Vitamin K2 is essential for calcium-dependent processes in tissues throughout the body, including bone. Since the discovery of vitamin K in 19351 researchers have elucidated many important roles and sources of vitamin K2. Even though many research milestones have been realized with vitamin K2, the researchers at Innerzyme continue to study this incredible nutrient to gain additional knowledge; including how it enters the body and moves throughout cells and tissues, how it is stored and how it is metabolized2. A major nuance of studying the role of vitamin K2 in the human body is that it is present in relatively low levels, making it hard to detect and measure. All this being said, a number of recent reports from diverse research groups have found promising results related to vitamin K2 and bone health, particularly in postmenopausal women.

A recent peer reviewed study from the Netherlands sought out to determine the effects of a natural form of vitamin K2, menaquinone-7 (MK-7), in postmenopausal women3. This work was driven by the European Food Safety Authority’s acceptance of claims that vitamin K had a role in bone health. To test this, the researchers carefully designed their double blind and randomized experiment, in which they measured bone mineral density before the treatment, as well as 1, 2 or 3 years after taking the vitamin K2 supplement daily. Bone mineral density scans are used to estimate the strength of an individual’s skeletal system, a fairly common test for postmenopausal women. Moreover, they looked for fractures and determined vitamin K status throughout the study. In all, the study finished with 223 women, with roughly half the participants receiving MK-7 (180 μg) and the other half receiving a placebo, serving as a control or baseline for the experiment.

Within the first year of the supplementation study, maximal levels of circulating vitamin K were achieved, being maintained throughout the 3-year duration. When examining the effects of vitamin K supplementation on bone loss, a pattern of improvement was achieved between year 1 and year 2, but it wasn’t until year 3 that there was a significant benefit for all three bone areas analyzed. In terms of bone strength, the femoral neck was significantly stronger with supplementation. These results support the original claims that drove this work, providing strong evidence of the long-term benefits of vitamin K on bone health. Prior to this study, only two other one-year studies were done on vitamin K2 MK-7.4,5. These encouraging results with the natural form of vitamin K2, MK-7, are most likely due to its chemical properties, including its increased stability and higher potency, compared to other forms.

Altogether, this research provides well-documented results that contribute significantly to the growing knowledge base concerning the health benefits of vitamin K2 supplementation, including increased bone health. For healthy bone and soft tissue support, the recommended dosage of vitamin K2, MK-7 is 300mcg per day, or as directed by a licensed healthcare practitioner.  In healthy individuals, research has not reported any side effects, adverse reactions or known toxicity as a result of large doses of vitamin K2, MK-7.

References:
  1. Dam and Schønheyder, “The occurrence and chemical nature of vitamin KBiochem J 30(5):897-901 (1936).
  2. Card et al., “Vitamin K metabolism: Current knowledge and future researchMol Nutr Food Res 58(8):1590-600 (2014).
  3. Knapen et al., “Three-year low-dose menaquinone-7 supplementation helps decrease bone loss in healthy postmenopausal womenOsteoporos Int 24(9):2499-507 (2013).
  4. Emaus et al., “Vitamin K2 supplementation does not influence bone loss in early menopausal women: a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trialOsteoporos Int 21:1731-40 (2009).
  5. Kanellakis et al., “Changes in parameters of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women following a 12-month intervention period using dairy products enriched with calcium, vitamin D, and phylloquinone (vitamin K(1)) or menaquinone-7 (vitamin K (2)): the Postmenopausal Health Study IICalcif Tissue Int 90:251-62 (2012).
What doctors are saying about Innerzyme Vitamin K2, MK-7?

Eli J. Hammer, M.D.
The Hammer Institute for Anti-Aging Medicine
Board Certified in Family Practice by the American Board of Family Practice
Board Certified in Anti-Aging Medicine by the Board of Anti-Aging Medicine

“As an Anti-Aging Medicine physician, I am continuously searching for anything that can be used to improve my patients’ present health, prevent future disease, and improve their quality of life. In addition to a healthy diet, optimal exercise, and bio-identical hormones, I also recommend and prescribe nutritional supplements to my patients. The most exciting, and possibly the most important discovery in supplements since Vitamin D3, may indeed be Vitamin K2. In fact, they actually work together to keep your bones strong and arteries clear of plaque. Up until recently, finding the proper form of Vitamin K2 was difficult to say the least. Ideally, a typical patient needs about 300mcg of Vitamin K2 per day, and should be in the most optimal form of K2 called MK-7. 

Most supplements use the synthetic and cheaper form of Vitamin K2 called MK-4, and come in less optimal dosing of 50-100mcg per capsule. I discovered Innerzyme Vitamin K2 MK-7 about two years ago and have been using this product exclusively ever since. Not only is it the only brand of Vitamin K2 that comes in a one capsule optimal dose of 300mcg, it is also of the MK-7 variety and produced naturally from fermented soy (natto), the optimal source. Along with the convenience of taking a single capsule daily, its pricing is also very competitive. My patients, family, and myself have been quite pleased with Innerzyme’s newest product, Vitamin K2, along with the company’s entire line of supplements.”

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

For more information, visit www.innerzyme.com.

Tuesday, February 3, 2015

Studies Indicate that Vitamin K2 Protects Against Coronary Heart Disease


 
Katie Jodscheidt, NASM-CPT, FNS
Founder of Innerzyme
 
Worldwide, cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death1, with over 7 million deaths each year attributed to the specific cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease (CHD)2. CHD, the main cause of heart attacks3, results from atherosclerosis, the narrowing of the inside of the artery. The plaque that builds up within arteries results in decreased blood flow to the heart. This is comparable to your drain clogging after the pipes gradually collect gunk inside. The main risk factors for CHD are smoking, genetics, obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, lack of exercise and stress4.
 
To combat coronary heart disease, doctors commonly utilize drugs and invasive procedures or surgeries5. In addition to, or in lieu of these sometimes-aggressive treatments, many employ lifestyle changes and take supplements to fight or prevent CHD. In order to determine specific risk factors related to cardiovascular diseases as well as others, a group of researchers in the Netherlands began an extensive population-based research effort called The Rotterdam Study6. Since 1989 the group has regularly interviewed and examined 15,000 elderly people within a specific district in the city of Rotterdam. With such a large number of localized subjects in this unique study, the scientists have the statistical power to determine whether or not specific risk factors are related to certain diseases. It is important to note that although these researchers can determine the relationship between risk and disease, they cannot determine whether a factor causes a disease or not.
 
In a seminal research paper generated by the Rotterdam Study, scientists and doctors determined that increased consumption of Vitamin K2 is correlated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease7, building upon numerous studies describing the inhibitory effect of Vitamin K-dependent proteins on atherosclerosis. The Rotterdam researchers assessed the diet of nearly 8000 subjects using a validated semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire conducted by trained dieticians. The concentration of Vitamin K2 and other micronutrients in common Dutch foods were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography, an analytical chemistry technique to separate, determine and quantify components of complex mixtures. Comprehensive clinical examinations were performed on all patients, including thorough blood work and assessment of atherosclerosis.
 
When the researchers assessed Vitamin K2 levels, they first noticed higher quantities in patients with greater total fat, saturated fat and calcium intake. Moreover they found higher levels in individuals with higher body mass index (body fat) and diabetes. Conversely they noticed lower Vitamin K2 levels in subjects with higher polyunsaturated fat (omega-3, omega-6, DHA, etc.). Furthermore, when analyzing cholesterol levels they found an inverse association with total cholesterol and a positive correlation with HDL (healthy cholesterol). Interestingly, Vitamin K2 intake was not correlated to a healthy lifestyle or diet, although some of the individual associations may suggest this.
 
Excitement arose when the researchers looked at the relationship between Vitamin K2 intake and coronary heart disease. To do this, they arranged patients into three evenly sized groups based on their Vitamin K2 levels (low, medium and high). When examining the high Vitamin K2 group the scientists discovered a strong and significant decrease in CHD incidence and CHD-related deaths.
 
Moreover there was a significant reduction in death from any cause in this group. In agreement with the coronary heart disease findings the researchers also found that patients with severe atherosclerosis had lower Vitamin K2. What is striking about these findings is that they still stand when the researchers adjusted for every other factor, including smoking, education, and diet. Additionally the researchers excluded subjects with previous heart attacks from their analysis in order to avoid a bias resulting from intentional changes in diet or lifestyle.
 
Altogether these data suggest that dietary intake of Vitamin K2 has a protective effect against coronary heart disease and death. Although this study does not prove Vitamin K2 specifically deters CHD, it provides additional support for a causal relationship between this dietary micronutrient and heart disease. Since this study was published, other groups have found similarly encouraging results. For instance, researchers discovered that for post-menopausal women, increased consumption of Vitamin K2 lowered the risk of atherosclerosis8. With the mounting evidence for Vitamin K2 reducing the risk of coronary heart disease the International Life Sciences Institute recently recommended taking Vitamin K29. Since it can be hard to consume the recommended amount of Vitamin K2 with a standard diet, taking a natural Vitamin K2 supplement, like Innerzyme Vitamin K2, MK-7, 300mcg can be advantageous. It will be exciting to learn more about the additional benefits of Vitamin K2 in the coming years, as it is an active area of research for many scientific and medical professionals.
 
References:

1.     Global status report on noncommunicable diseases 2010. World Health Organization (2011).
3.     "Heart attack/coronary artery disease". Mount Sinai Hospital, New York.
4.     "Causes". Coronary artery disease. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (2012).
5.     Jameson et al., "Harrison's principles of internal medicine" (16th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical Publishing Division (2005).
6.     Hofman et al., “Determinants of disease and disability in the elderly: the Rotterdam Elderly Study” European Journal of Epidemiology 7:403–422 (1991).
7.     Geleijnse et al., “Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease: the Rotterdam Study” Journal of Nutrition 134(11):3100-3105 (2004).
8.     Beulens et al., “High dietary menaquinone intake is associated with reduced coronary calcification” Atherosclerosis 203(2):489-93 (2009).
9.     Beulens et al., “The role of menaquinones (vitamin K₂) in human health” Journal of Nutrition 110(8):1357-68 (2013).

About the Author:
 
Katie Jodscheidt is a Fitness Nutrition Specialist and Certified Personal Trainer through the National Academy of Sports Medicine (NASM). Katie is passionate about helping others improve their overall quality of life by improving their health. Her mission is to educate people on how to live a healthy lifestyle through proper diet, exercise and nutritional supplementation. With years of research on natural health alternatives and collaborating with highly trained physicians around the world, Katie Jodscheidt founded Innerzyme in 2011. Innerzyme is revolutionizing the natural health industry with specially formulated, ethically created nutritional supplements including Vitamin K2, MK-7, 300mcg and a full range of digestive and systemic enzyme supplements. 
 
All Innerzyme supplements are made in the USA in a cGMP certified facility. For more information, visit www.innerzyme.com.
 


Buy Innerzyme Vitamin K2, MK-7, 300mcg from one of our authorized internet retailers:

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

Tuesday, December 30, 2014

Vitamin K2 and Parkinson's: High Profile Studies of Vitamin K2 Provide Hope for Parkinson's Patients

December 30, 2014
Katie Jodscheidt, NASM-CPT, FNS
A study from the laboratory of Patrik Verstreken published in the prestigious journal Science describes an exciting discovery in relation to Parkinson’s-related PINK1 deficiency. Specifically, they discovered that vitamin K2 alleviates the negative effects of the Parkinson’s specific PINK1 mutations in fruit flies.

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder affecting the central nervous system. This devastating disease affects part of the brain associated with critical functions, such as vision, hearing and movement1. With an absence of definitive markers for Parkinson’s, diagnosis is made on a clinical basis. With 60,000 new cases every year in the U.S. there are nearly one million American’s living with PD, costing an astounding $25 billion per year2. The most obvious symptoms of PD are shaking, rigidity and slow movement, exemplified by the famous PD patient, actor Michael J. Fox3. The symptoms are a result of the death of a specific type of cell in the aforementioned midbrain that produces dopamine, resulting in lower levels of this neurotransmitter that is crucial for regulation of movement and other functions.

For many patients there are no definitive causes or risk factors for Parkinson’s disease, most likely being triggered by a combination of genetic and environmental factors (mix of nature and nurture). On the other hand, some PD cases are attributed to mutations in specific genes4. These mutations have adverse effects on the function of the proteins in which they code for, resulting in significant biological defects. One such Parkinson’s gene is PINK15,6,7. PINK1 functions in “powerhouse” of the cell, the mitochondria, and is involved with neuron differentiation8.

A study from the laboratory of Patrik Verstreken published in the prestigious journal Science describes an exciting discovery in relation to Parkinson’s-related PINK1 deficiencyI9. Specifically, they discovered that vitamin K2 alleviates the negative effects of the Parkinson’s specific PINK1 mutations in fruit flies. Flies are one the most prevalently used organisms in genetic and biological studies. Their utility lies within their ease of use, as well as the fact that the inner workings and cellular activities of these little animals reflect what occurs within our cells. Conservation of machinery and processes between flies and humans results in the majority of scientific discoveries in flies holding true for humans as well.

The Verstreken lab discovered the connection between PINK1 and vitamin K2 by beginning their experiments with a poor flying PINK1 mutant fly. Subsequently, they selectively looked for additional mutations in the flies that resulted in poorer flight ability. The rationale behind this standard genetic approach was to find genes that were involved in the same processes as PINK1, with the hypothesis that a poorer flying mutant would have a mutation in something related to PINK1’s role in flight. They found that the worst flying double mutant had an additional mutation in the HEIX gene, which is involved in vitamin K2 synthesis in bacteria and humans.

With the data suggesting that vitamin K2 is involved with PINK1 in flight, they asked whether feeding PINK1 mutant fruit flies vitamin K2 could alleviate their poor flight, as well as other symptoms. Amazingly, PINK deficient flies fed vitamin K2 had significantly improved flight, energy levels, and survival rates compared to flies not supplemented with vitamin K2. Encouragingly, the observed improvements with vitamin K2 were dose-dependent and time-dependent, characteristic of prototypical drugs and supplements. Further experiments demonstrated that the improvements were most likely due to improved mitochondria function, meaning more efficient energy production. Digging even deeper, the researchers discovered that vitamin K2 could transport electrons, an essential step in energy production.

Altogether the experimental results described in this paper constitute a significant leap in our scientific understanding of the potential of vitamin K2, as well as encouraging news for those suffering from Parkinson’s. Since the publication of the Verstreken lab’s findings researchers have found that vitamin K2 synthesis is also crucial for embryonic and vascular development10,11. Adding to the encouragement is the fact that vitamin K2 is a natural form of vitamin K. These new discoveries, as well as the general nature of vitamin K2’s improvement of energy production provide ample support for the idea that vitamin K2 can help people suffering from other diseases and disorders, as well as a general supplement to improve overall health and well-being.

References:
1.     Breedlove et. al., Biological Psychology, 6th Edition, 2010.
3.     Brockes, "It's the gift that keeps on taking"The Guardian, 11 April 2009.
5.     Valente et. al., (2004). "Hereditary early-onset Parkinson's disease caused by mutations in PINK1"Science 304 (5674): 1158–60 (2014).
6.     Pimenta de Castro et. al., "Genetic analysis of mitochondrial protein misfolding in Drosophila melanogaster"Cell Death and Differentiation 19 (8): 1308–16 (2012).
7.     Valente et. al., "PINK1 mutations are associated with sporadic early-onset parkinsonism"Annals of Neurology 56 (3): 336–41 (2004).
8.     Dagda et. al., "Beyond the mitochondrion: cytosolic PINK1 remodels dendrites through protein kinase A"Journal of Neurochemistry 128(6):864-77 (2014).
9.     M. Vos et. al., “Vitamin K2 is a mitochondrial electron carrier that rescues PINK1 deficiency”, Science 336(6086):1306-10 (2012).
10. Nakagawa et. al., “Vitamin K2 biosynthetic enzyme, UBIAD1 is essential for embryonic development of mice” PLOS One. Aug 15;9(8):e104078 (2014).

About the Author:

Katie Jodscheidt is a Fitness Nutrition Specialist and Certified Personal Trainer through the National Academy of Sports Medicine (NASM). Katie is passionate about helping others improve their overall quality of life by improving their health. Her mission is to educate people on how to live a healthy lifestyle through proper diet, exercise and nutritional supplementation. With years of research on natural health alternatives and collaborating with highly trained physicians around the world, Katie founded Innerzyme in 2011. Innerzyme is revolutionizing the natural health industry with specially formulated, ethically created nutritional supplements including Vitamin K2, MK-7, 300mcg and a full range of digestive and systemic enzyme supplements. All Innerzyme supplements are made in the USA in a cGMP certified facility.

For more information: